Video Cameras

  1. Use .mp4
  2. if you have adobe bridge, use that. if not, use ImageBrowser EX
  3. Camera work is a combination of technical and aesthetic
    1. Focus – sharp vs. soft
      1. Focal length (length that the light travels to be focused – like a projector)
        1. short – wide angle – picks up a lot at the same time
        2. long – telephoto – capturing a small piece of something (telescope)
        3. zoom
          1. variable (zoom) – You can change length in one continuous move
          2. digital zoom – zoom in even further than you can with optical zoom – artificial.
          3. optical zoom – with the optics of the lens (regular, further level)
        4. A long focal length compresses distance, a short focal length expands distance.
    2. Exposure – light vs. dark
      1. aperture – where light enters
      2. iris – adjusts aperture
      3. the size of the iris is indicated by f/stops (used to be visible on lens, a fraction of the focal length of the lens). The smaller the number the larger the opening is, the larger the number the smaller the aperture is. It spreads the light out so that it is evenly dispersed.
      4. Most cameras have auto-iris that control exposure.Use the auto to find the right exposure, but then lock it.
      5. Shutter – a curtain that pops out of the way and allows the light to come through before closing again. You can have a faster shutter speed,might you need to increase the light (aperture)
      6. ISO – makes the imaging chip more or less sensitive to light. The larger the ISO number the higher light sensitivity and granier.
      7. depth of field: the amount of space that is in focus.
        1. Focal length – longer the lens the shallower the depth of field
        2. Subject distance of Camera – causes a difference in focus between the subject and the surroundings.
        3. Lens aperture
    3. Framing – compose the elements in the frame
      1. shot variation / field of view – getting closer or farther from the subject
      2. camera movement
        1. controlled
          1. requires stabilization device
          2. expensive look
        2. spontaneous
          1. reality TV
          2. move the camera when they don’t have to – energizing the shot
        3. zoom – performed with lens optics
        4. pan – swivel side to side
        5. tilt – tilt camera up and down
        6. dolly – moving camera on a platform, even laterally (used to be called truck but not anymore)
        7. Crane/Jib – raise or lower camera in a fluid way
        8. steadicam – counterweighted harness
      3. Composition
        1. somewhat intuitive
        2. Vectors – lead the eye or orient the viewer
          1.  Types
            1. graphic – lead the eye
            2. index – tell you where things should be coming from. Faces/points a certain way.
            3. motion – tell you where things should be coming from when they are moving
          2. Rules
            1. Line of screen direction – things need to shoot from the same side of this line. Important in storytelling.
            2. Headroom – less than there used to be.
            3. Noseroom and Leadroom – space in front of the subject to balance the shot when someone is looking, pointing or moving across the frame.
            4. Dealing with Motion Axes – Z = moving toward or away from the camera. Z has more energy.
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Concept

  1. Concept
    1. Define
      1. List of relevant attributes
      2. List of irrelevant attributes
    2. Example paired with non example
      1. A
        1. Example has all relevant attributes
        2. Non-example is missing one or more of the irrelevant attributes
        3. The missing non-relevant attributes become evident by contrast
      2. B
        1. Further examples with the relevant attributes, but different irrelevant attributes
        2. The irrelevant attributes are evident by contrast
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Devfingers on Mountain – the Coding Bootcamp Phenomenon

  1. How this unfolded
    1. pre-course work and tests to make sure that people are at a certain level before they start
    2. teachers instruct and facilitate discussions, mentors work 1:1, the real learning
  2. Pedagogy
    1.  Focus on relevancy
      1. Everything starts with a problem
      2. Learning objectives align with resume bullets
      3. involve industry experts
    2. Hands-on
      1. Fingers on keyboard as much as possible
      2. Guided practice
    3. Psychology
      1. The top 30% of people in STEM fields graduate, regardless of school. Likely because they are surrounded by people who are as smart or smarter than them, possibly for the first time. It can be difficult to cope with this.
  3. 16-year-old Coder
  4. I hate coding, but this is really exciting. When I was watching the video to prepare I thought I might even try it. I’ve decided since that I probably don’t have the aptitude, but I am excited about the pedagogical choices that they are using. I think a lot of these things can be applied to content other than coding. I think it’s great that their learning outcomes are connected to resume points. I think that there are some fields of study where this would be difficult, but it begs the question, why are we teaching things if not to help students get jobs? I think that when we design around learning outcomes we should also think about the purpose of the learning outcome. I also think it’s very interesting that they are taking psychology into account in their planning. While most learning experiences aren’t running at such a fast pace, I think it is important for designers and teachers to think about how our products are going to affect people, and how those feelings they are going to have might affect the way they learn. Even though I haven’t done any designs for coding, and may not ever, I think these things they are learning and thinking about are useful for other kinds of design.
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Epitome

  1. Epitome – a perfect example
    1. If you teach people a core idea then you can teach one thing that allows them to do much more
      1. If you can understand the core ideas you can generate knowledge that you never had to be taught.
      2. We can’t be casual about the representations we give people. We need to give them representations that represent the core of the information.
      3. E.g. periodic table of elements, music wheel, sum of squares.
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The Process

  1. The Script
    1. Solidify you approach
      1. Demonstration – step by step
      2. Persuasive (problem/solution)
      3. Documentary (historical/magazine)
      4. Dramatization (re-enactment/slice of life)
      5. Spokesperson (narrator/celebrity)
      6. Interview (straight/testimonial)
      7. Humor
      8. Music/Affective
    2. Gather content
      1. Internet or lIbrary Research
      2. Written client information
      3. Interviews
      4. Content decisions – documentary or biography
        1. Find the most interesting factoids, not the whole story. Then you can weave your story around those pieces
        2. Create a theme or “peg” if possible (Harvey Fletcher – scientist who also served others
    3. Organize Content
      1. Create a Sequenced Outline
        1. Complete sentences are better than fragments because they will translate more easily into your script narrative
        2. Always write what you’re ready to write
    4. Write a Narrative
      1. Similar to a speech
      2. Assign character parts – maybe male and female
      3. Interview is better when it is testimonial, spontaneous. Just insert a block that says “interview” and says what it will be about.
      4. Start thinking visually
      5. Keys to effective writing
        1. conversational tone
        2. short sentences
        3. active voice
      6. Complete your visualization
        1. see (italic) first, then hear (normal)
        2. Change visuals often
        3. Format your script
          1. Two column (written storyboard) – shows balance between visuals and narrative.
          2. Shot-by-shot – guides reader through the program. More professional format.
    5. Special Considerations
      1. The “talking head”
        1. reasons:
          1. credibility (if spokesperson/celebrity)
          2. low budget/no time
          3. cover mistakes
        2. making it work
          1. related, interesting, but not distracting background
          2. moving
          3. vary camera angle  – also good if there is a mistake
      2. Humor
        1.  Appropriateness to the subject matter
        2. Reinforce message
        3. Know audience
        4. Firm Boundaries
        5. Recognize parody
        6. Chuckle vs. Laugh
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Basics of Video Production

  1. Illusion of motion
    1. Phi Phenomenon – if you move cards past quickly they look like they are moving
    2. Persistence of Vision – there are actually black spots between images on film and our brains smooth that out.
    3. Standard definition
      1. Scan lines: 1 frame, 480 lines. you measure the resolution of a video by how many lines there are. High definition video is measured by how many pixels.
      2. A full frame 30 times per second
      3. A frame was made of two sets of lines – you see the odd, then the even in each frame. (Interlaced)
    4. Counting frames
      1. smpte time code – you can go back to a precise frame and make edits
      2. digital video time code
      3. video doesn’t actually run at 30fps.
        1. Drop Frame – every once in a while the time codes will skip a frame
        2. It actually runs at 29.97 fps – this is important for broadcasting, but not anywhere else.
    5. Video Standards – now digital formats
      1. NTSC was the US system, ATSC is the new standard for high definition in the US (720 lines, full high-def is 1080 lines, 30 fps).
      2. Other countries use others (PAT, SECAM etc.)
      3. Some newer cameras allow both interlacing and progressive scans.
    6. Video Formats
      1. Used to be determined by the type of tape a camera used
      2. Now determined by video files
      3. Standard formats:
        1. Codec – how video data is compressed or decompressed
        2. Container –
        3. E.g. container – quicktime, extension – .mov, developed by apple, supports many codecs like (1)H.264 is good for youtube; (2) Apple Pro Res – has a good image quality. You choose these when you export.
        4. E.g. container – Mpeg4, extension. mp4, works with H.264 codec (stable, pretty). This is good on a lot of devices.
        5. Compression – when you compress you lose something. Avoid re-compressing files and preserve master files in their original format.
    7. Other
      1. Safe area – the part you can see when some is cropped off. Video on projection systems and computer screens don’t have this issue.
      2. Adobe audition – can take down ambient noise (which seems to show up more on our systems)
      3. Aspect Ratio – the shape of the video image
        1. Old NTSC video – 4:3
    8. Possible video types
      1.  Step-by-step: bread making, rock climbing?
      2. Orientations: bird watching, ip&t?
      3. Promotion: Open high school, book publishing machine
      4. Interview: brooks braddle britt
      5. Storytelling/Documentary: Harvey Fletcher (still life, simulation, old documents, recreations)
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Student progress evaluations and roadblocks to timely graduation

  1. Program CORE Checklist
    1. Biannual progress evaluation
    2. Select advisory committee
    3. Build Study List
    4. Complete CORE courses
    5. Complete SKILLS courses
    6. Complete Internships
    7. Complete Projects
    8. Complete Specialization Courses
    9. Complete Seminar Courses
  2. Graduation Checklist
    1. Biannual progress evaluation
    2. Select chair and committee
    3. Write prospectus
    4. Prospectus defense
    5. Write dissertation
    6. Oral defense
    7. Dissertation through dean’s office
    8. Exit interview/exit survey
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