Basics of Video Production

  1. Illusion of motion
    1. Phi Phenomenon – if you move cards past quickly they look like they are moving
    2. Persistence of Vision – there are actually black spots between images on film and our brains smooth that out.
    3. Standard definition
      1. Scan lines: 1 frame, 480 lines. you measure the resolution of a video by how many lines there are. High definition video is measured by how many pixels.
      2. A full frame 30 times per second
      3. A frame was made of two sets of lines – you see the odd, then the even in each frame. (Interlaced)
    4. Counting frames
      1. smpte time code – you can go back to a precise frame and make edits
      2. digital video time code
      3. video doesn’t actually run at 30fps.
        1. Drop Frame – every once in a while the time codes will skip a frame
        2. It actually runs at 29.97 fps – this is important for broadcasting, but not anywhere else.
    5. Video Standards – now digital formats
      1. NTSC was the US system, ATSC is the new standard for high definition in the US (720 lines, full high-def is 1080 lines, 30 fps).
      2. Other countries use others (PAT, SECAM etc.)
      3. Some newer cameras allow both interlacing and progressive scans.
    6. Video Formats
      1. Used to be determined by the type of tape a camera used
      2. Now determined by video files
      3. Standard formats:
        1. Codec – how video data is compressed or decompressed
        2. Container –
        3. E.g. container – quicktime, extension – .mov, developed by apple, supports many codecs like (1)H.264 is good for youtube; (2) Apple Pro Res – has a good image quality. You choose these when you export.
        4. E.g. container – Mpeg4, extension. mp4, works with H.264 codec (stable, pretty). This is good on a lot of devices.
        5. Compression – when you compress you lose something. Avoid re-compressing files and preserve master files in their original format.
    7. Other
      1. Safe area – the part you can see when some is cropped off. Video on projection systems and computer screens don’t have this issue.
      2. Adobe audition – can take down ambient noise (which seems to show up more on our systems)
      3. Aspect Ratio – the shape of the video image
        1. Old NTSC video – 4:3
    8. Possible video types
      1.  Step-by-step: bread making, rock climbing?
      2. Orientations: bird watching, ip&t?
      3. Promotion: Open high school, book publishing machine
      4. Interview: brooks braddle britt
      5. Storytelling/Documentary: Harvey Fletcher (still life, simulation, old documents, recreations)
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