Open Definitions

Four Freedoms and Derivatives

The Original Four Freedoms, Roosevelt

Historical Significance

  1. Goals articulated on 6 January, 1941 by American president FDR.
  2. He said everyone in the world should enjoy them.
  3. Broke the non-interventionist tradition that had been held in the US since WWI.
  4. A rationale for supporting and eventually entering WWII

Key Points

  1. Freedom of speech
  2. Freedom of worship
  3. Freedom from want
  4. Freedom from fear

Questions for Discussion

Supplemental Resources

Other

The Four Freedoms, Stallman

Historical Significance

Key Points

  1. Earlier Notes
  2. Run the program as you want
  3. Study how the program works (must have source code to do this)
  4. Redistribute copies (so you can help your neighbor)
  5. Distribute copies of your modifications

Questions for Discussion

Supplemental Resources

Other

The Freedom Defined Definition

Historical Significance

Key Points

  1. Essential freedoms – These seem to me to be exactly the same as Stallman’s, maybe this is a case of forking for a small reason, but keeping most the same? And they’re opposed to Open, why?
    1. The freedom to use and perform the work
    2. The freedom to study the work and apply the information (the license can’t prohibit reverse engineering)
    3. The freedom to redistribute copies (even for a fee)
    4. The freedom to distribute derivative works.
  2. Permissible restrictions
    1. Attribution
    2. symmetric collaboration (copyleft)
    3. Protecting the essential freedom
  3. Definition
    1. Availability of source data, all the data that makes up a piece needs to come with it (musical score, raw scientific data)
    2. Use a free format. Non-free format can be used, but a free format must be available as well.
    3. No technical restrictions – would contradict with the above
    4. No other restrictions (patents, contracts, privacy rights). Can cite a copyrighted work, but only the truly free parts are part of the free work.

Questions for Discussion

  1. The Free Culture Licenses seem to have the same rules as Stallman’s Free Software, are they the Content arm of Free Software? Is that why they’re opposed to Open?

Supplemental Resources

Other

Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) and Derivatives

The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG)

Historical Significance

  1. Debian are the producers of the Debian GNU/Linux system
  2. This is the basis of the Open Source Definition

Key Points (Debian Social Contract)

  1. Debian will remain 100% Free Software – they will support users who develop and use non-free software on Debian, but won’t make the system need it.
    1. Free Redistribution – no restrictions, no royalties
    2. Source code – must be distributed as well
    3.  Derived Works
    4. Integrity of the Author’s Source Code – license can restrict source code from being distributed when modified only if patch files are allowed. Derived files can be required to use a different name or number. (This is a grudging compromise).
    5. No discriminations against persons or groups
    6. No Discrimination against fields of endeavor (e.g. business, genetic research)
    7. Distribution of license – must be able to use same license in distributions
    8. License must not be specific to Debian – license must be free standing
    9. License must not contaminate other software – must not restrict software that comes with it.
    10. Example licenses – GPL, BSD, Artistic.
  2. They will give back to the free software community – new things will be licensed as free software. They will make they best system they can and improve their products.
  3. Won’t hide problems – keep the whole but report public
  4. Priorities are users and free software – Won’t stop them from using whatever software they want on Debian, but the system will remain high-quality and free.
  5. Programs that don’t meet free software standards – There is a place for non-free software on Debian and they will provide an infrastructure for it.

Questions for Discussion

Supplemental Resources

Other

The Open Source Definition

Historical Significance

Key Points

  1. The same conditions as Debian with the addition that License must be technology neutral – the license can’t require that any specific technology or interface.
  2. Open Works – must satisfy the following requirements
    1. Open license, any other licenses can’t contradict the open one
    2. Access – the work must be available in it’s entirety and no more than a reasonable on-time reproduction cost, preferably downloadable online without charge.
      1. I think this might be the only one I’ve seen so far with this stipulation, specifically the reasonable, one-time cost.
    3. Open Format – the format must be convenient and open.
      1. If there was say, no open office, would word documents not be allowed. What about google docs. It’s certainly not open, but it is freely available.
      2. There is no format that is going to live forever. Practically it makes sense to distribute in a format that more people can use, even if it isn’t open.

Questions for Discussion

Supplemental Resources

Other

The Open Definition

Historical Significance

Key Points

  1. Open licenses – must satisfy the following requirements
    1. Required permissions
      1. Use
      2. Redistribution
      3. Modification (and distribution under the same terms as the original
      4. Separation – the parts have the same rights as the whole – this is a new one
      5. Compilation – not restrict works it is distributed with
      6. Non-discrimination
      7. Propagation
      8. Application to any purpose
      9. No charge – the license can’t impose a few.
    2. Acceptable conditions
      1. Attribution
      2. Integrity
      3. Share-alike
      4. Notice
      5. Source – modified worked needs to be available in a form that will allow for more modification
      6. Technical restriction prohibition
      7. Non-aggression – I’m not sure what this would look like.

Questions for Discussion

  1. What are the implications of the separation stipulation in the open license?

Supplemental Resources

Other

5Rs + ALMS

The Open Content Definition

Historical Significance

Key Points

  1. Open content – any coprightable work (except software) that is licensed so that users have free and perpetual permissions to do the 5Rs
  2. 5Rs
    1. Retail – have a copy of
    2. Reuse – in a wide range of ways
    3. Revise
    4. Remix
    5. Redistribute
  3. Legal Requirements and Restrictions make content less open
    1. requiring that derivative works use the same license or not allowing commercial use makes content less open
    2. There is disagreement within the community, especially concerning commercial works. It seems to me that if you want to give something away without someone else selling it that should be ok, but maybe I’m just in the Locke mindset.
    3. Wikipedia and MIT Open-courseware require different licenses, which makes their information incompatible.
    4. These licenses can further individual goals, but usually hurts global goals.
  4. Poor technical choices make content less open (ALMS)
    1. Access to editing tools – Can the content only be revised using expensive or scarce tools? – What about things that don’t have an open component?
    2. Level of Expertise Required – What technical skills are needed to remix?
    3. Meaningfully editable – Is it in a format that is easy to edit (scanned document vs. text document)
    4. Self-sourced – Is the format for using the content the same as it is for editing it?
  5. I like the format of questions a lot better than that of rules the others have.

Questions for Discussion

Supplemental Resources

Other

The Access Compromise and the 5th R

Historical Significance

  1. 7 years after the 4Rs
  2. Access Compromise
    1. Libraries were created to give people access to books when ownership was impossible.
    2. Now ownership is very possible, but the cost of text books is climbing to a point where institutions are trying to convince students to go back to access.

Key Points

  1. Definition of OER
    1. free and unfettered access to the resources
    2. whatever copyright permissions are necessary for users to engage in teh 4R activities
  2. The attack on personal property – publishers retain control over you and the use of their content.
  3. Disappearing ink – institutions try to make books more affordable by deceasing access to them (buyback, rental, subscription, digital rights management) – the institution/publishers are essentially communicating to students that their texts won’t be useful outside of one class, which seems to defeat the purpose of them. The university is sending a mixed message when they do this and at the same time requiring that you take classes based on these books.
  4. Access compromise (above)
  5. The 5th R
    1. Commercial publishers are not going to fix this, so it falls to open education
    2. OER frameworks have not focused on ownership, though it is implied in other areas
    3. Adding retain to the framework will bring focus to this issue. This reminds me of hosting issues we’ve discussed before. I have access to something now, and it almost feels like ownership because I honestly don’t want a hard copy or even a hard drive copy of most things, but if someone else is hosting it I could lose access at any time, without any warning.

Questions for Discussion

Supplemental Resources

Other

Open Definitions, Specificity, and Avoiding Bright Lines

Historical Significance

Key Points

  1. OKF Issues
    1. the Open Knowledge Foundation (OKF) doesn’t make a distinction between revise (change) and remix (mix with something else)
    2. focuses on access, not ownership
    3. qualifies “open” based on distribution, and though it often discusses the license doesn’t make the distinction that the license is what gives rights.
  2. Bright Line
    1. DFSG – written for software and doesn’t address the nuances of content or data
    2. Open, by this definition, exists on a continuum on which people can strive to be more and more open, rather than being satisfied with sitting on the open side of the line.

Questions for Discussion

Supplemental Resources

Other

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