Ch. 2: Understanding Instruction

Constructs about instruction: differ from constructions about instructional theory because they “may ormay not be used in any given theory”. Similar to grammar in language, which can be linked back to the parts of speech, constructs about instruction can be linked to organizing categories.

Constructs about Instructional Methods: 

1. Instructional Approaches:

  • Macrostregies such as problem-based learning, experiential learning, direct instruction and instructional simulation, general methods that bring together other strategies
  • Some of these bundled components are required while others are optional, the choices that a designer makes determine the “flavor” of a specific approach. 
2. Instructional Components
  • If the instructional approaches are the molecules, the instructional components are the atoms. 
  • These are often used in conjunction with other components, and also across different approaches. Ie. Practice is used in many designs. 
3. Content Sequencing
  • Various ways of ordering content, can be used in several types of instruction. 
    • Ie. easy to difficult, concrete to abstract
    • In some cases sequencing becomes so “big” that it becomes an approach itself. 
To rejoin the grammar analogy, all sentences must use some parts of speech, but it is rare that one will use all of them. It is the work of the designer to decide which parts are beset suited for his design. 
  • To consider:
    • age of learners
    • effectiveness and efficiency of methods
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